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SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL PEER-REVIEWED MONTHLY JOURNAL.
INSTITUTION OF MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

History

In solving one of the main tasks of economic development of the state - increasing production efficiency - the leading role belongs to science, including medical science. Its achievements contribute to preserving the main productive force of society - people and their health. The main channel of scientific information is the branch scientific journals. For 90 years, the magazine "Healthcare" has made a worthy contribution to the coverage of the most important events, problems and achievements in the field of medicine in Belarus.

The magazine began to be published in the hardest period after the end of the First World War and the Civil War. The country was ruined and half starved; typhus, cholera, smallpox, tuberculosis, syphilis, and malaria were rampant. It required a tremendous strain of moral and physical strength for the restoration of the national economy of the country, culture, education and health. Everyday life posed a lot of questions to the medical community, not only organizational, but also scientific, requiring urgent permission, which dictated the need to establish a constantly published magazine. In August 1921, the government of the republic decided to create a monthly popular science magazine - the official organ of the People's Commissariat of Health (1,000 copies). In September 1924, the journal, the first swallow of resurgent medical thought, began to appear. It was not accidental that it was called "Belarusian Medical Thought". Since this publication is the pedigree of the domestic medical periodical press.

The first issue of the magazine was edited by the Deputy People's Commissar for Health of the BSSR Ye.Yu. Zelikson and Dean of the Medical Faculty of BSU Professor M. B. Krol. Soon the magazine was headed by the People's Commissar of Health, Associate Professor M. I. Barsukov (1924-1929). The editorial board included Professors M. B. Krol and B. Ya. Elbert, M. A.  Polyak, V. A.  Sokolov, I. I. Tsvikevich.

An important role in the development of national healthcare and medical science played by the opening in 1921 of the Belarusian State University (BSU). To establish it, scientists from Russia and Ukraine (Moscow, Smolensk, Kiev, Kharkov) were invited. In the most difficult conditions of that time, the task of establishing medical work, leading medical workers fell on their shoulders. They played a leading role in the revival of the scientific and public life of the physicians of Belarus (scientific societies, congresses, medical publications).

The editors of the magazine's columns were professors and teachers of BSU, the founders of the first scientific medical schools of Belarus: morphology and forensic medicine - professors S. I. Lebedkin, I. T. Titov, P. A. Mavrodiadi; Biology - Professor L. P. Rozanov, A. P. Bestuzhev, A. S. Schepotyev; Microbiology and epidemiology - Professor B. Ya. Elbert; Therapy - professors F. O. Gaussman, S. M. Melkikh; Surgery - Professor S. M. Rubashov, M. P. Sokolovsky; Ophthalmology - Professor S. D. Kaminsky; Obstetrics and Gynecology - Professor M. L. Vydrin; Neurology - Professor M. B. Krol; Psychiatry - Professor A. K.  Lentz; Pediatrics - Professor V. A. Leonov; ENT diseases - Professor S. M. Burak; Dermatology and Venereology - Professor V. Yu. Mnogovius; General hygiene - Professor M. M.  Exemplarsky; Odontology - Associate Professor I. M. Starobinsky; Social hygiene - Associate Professor M. I. Barsukov, Associate Professor B. Ya. Smulevich, D. V. Livshits; Hygiene of work - S. R. Dikhtyar; Occupational diseases - S. R. Dikhtyar, S. N. Efimtsev.

The editorial of the first issue stressed: "The main goal put at the head of the magazine is to organically connect and expediently combine theoretical scientific medical thought with the practical needs of the present reality of our republic, taking into account all-round specific features".

From the first years of existence of the "Belarusian Medical Thought", well-known scientists and organizers of public health services of the republic were involved in cooperation. In the years 1924-1926. were published problematic articles of professors M. B. Krol, I. T. Titov, V. A. Leonov, S. M. Melkikh, L. P. Rozanov, S. M. Rubashov, B. Ya. Elbert, D. A.  Markov, in which the vital problems of theoretical and clinical medicine were reflected. Much attention was paid to epidemiology and medical-sanitary examination of the population. Looking through the magazine, you clearly see many health problems of the time - a high incidence of tuberculosis, trachoma, malaria, goiter, scleroma, rabies, venereal diseases, typhus, childhood infections.

 

Apart from articles in the magazine, there were reports of medical vacancies, data on the health budget, activities of the Scientific Medical Council (UMS) of the People's Commissariat for Health and the Minsk Society of Physicians. Published reviews and abstracts, reviews and bibliography. There was a special section of the chronicle and letters, which published decrees and reports on the activities of large medical institutions, reports on congresses, and business leaflets of Belmedtorg. The materials on the history of the creation of the medical section of the Institute of Belarusian Culture (the predecessor of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR) and the work of its commissions: terminological, anthropological, regional pathology (scleroma, goitre) of health education of the Belarusian population are of interest. Over time, the column "Cases from practice" appeared, where doctors could share valuable, sometimes extremely rare observations. 

Political reforms in the country required new forms of medical care for the population, an innovative approach to solving the problems of building health care and medical education. This explains the polemical tone, which permeates not only individual notes, but also original articles by M. I. Barsukov, E. Yu. Zelikonson, M. B. Krol.

It is necessary to note the merits of M. I. Barsukov as editor-in-chief. Almost every issue contained his articles, which dealt with the pressing issues of domestic health care, the organization of medicine in the countryside, the improvement of working and living conditions of workers and peasants, the problems of medical education, etc. One of the attractive features of Mikhail Ivanovich was the internal freedom of belief and the independence of opinions. Having versatile interests and great erudition, he created a respectful and friendly atmosphere in the editorial board, decorating the meetings of the editorial board with wise remarks. M. I. Barsukov looked through all the incoming articles, attracted prominent scientists to cooperate, helped young authors, seeking correspondence of the magazine to the scientific and practical profile. Thanks to his creative management, the work of the editorial staff was set at a high level, despite the fact that all employees worked free of charge. The magazine was published in the best traditions of the periodical medical press and could compete with foreign editions.

During the entire period of its existence, the magazine experienced economic difficulties: sometimes it was published in duplicate numbers, often with a deficit, since printing absorbed almost all available financial resources. The first year was one of the most difficult. The absence of a firm ruble, rising prices for paper and printing costs jeopardized the existence of the magazine. The editorial staff repeatedly appealed: "To whom the existence of the magazine is expensive, we address with the most humble request to support and its continued existence by a permanent subscription and dissemination of information about it among the medical world." The reader appeared to be sympathetic, the doctors had an expensive existence of the native scientific magazine.

"Belarusian medical thought", being a link between the central health authorities and the medical community of the republic, quickly gained sympathy and became popular, especially with the organizers of public health and doctors of rural areas. Here is the evaluation received by the magazine at the 1st All-Belarusian Health Workers' Meeting on January 16, 1928: "... the magazine took the right direction, highlighting on its pages the issues of public health, as well as theoretical, experimental and clinical medicine, and thus became truly public and necessary establishment for the entire medical society of Belarus ".

In the mid-1920s, the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic took a course toward Belarusianization and the translation of records management into the national language. In the years 1925-1929. The magazine was published in Belarusian and Russian under the title " Belaruskaja Mjedychnaja Dumka " (volume 7-8 liters, circulation 800 copies). However, this period ended in 1929, when repression began against "national-democratic deviators." On a false charge, E. Yu. Zelikson was arrested.

In total in 1924-1929 years 417 articles were published: therapy - 35, surgery - 33, children's diseases - 31, abstracts of articles from foreign journals - 182. One of the indicators of accessibility of foreign medical literature are references of articles. The articles refer to 641 bibliographic sources: Russian-language journals - 37.1%, German - 40.1%, English - 8.9%, French - 7.1%. A large number of German publications were due to their availability, since diplomatic relations existed with Germany. Belarusian physicians had the opportunity to publish articles in German journals, which Professor F. A. Gausman and V. A. Leonov, Yu. M. Irger, and E. E. Katsman were eager to use. In 1929, due to financial difficulties, the magazine " Belaruskaja Mjedychnaja Dumka " ceased to exist.

In 1938, the publication of the periodical edition of the People's Commissariat of Health was resumed under the title "Medical Journal of the BSSR" (circulation of 1500-2300 copies, volume 5 liters). Responsible (chief) editors - Health care associate professor K. V. Kiselev (1938), I. A. Novikov (1938-1940) and associate professor M. I. Kovalenok (1940-1941), deputies of the responsible editor - Professor S. M. Melkikh and D. A. Markov, the responsible secretaries were Professor D. M. Golub and F. Ya. Schulz (1938). The editorial board included academicians IT Titov, A. Ya. Prokopchuk, V. A. Leonov; Professor V. A. Anishchenko, M. L. Vydrin, M. A. Dvorzhets, E. V. Korchits, D. V. Lifshits, Z. K. Mogilevchik, L. Ya. Siterman, SM Frid, M. A. Khazanov; Associate Professors P. V. Ostapenya, D. P.  Belyatsky.

In the years of the first five-year plans (1928-1941), the health of the republic was further developed. The medical faculty of the Belarusian State University is being reformed into the Belarusian (Minsk) Medical Institute (1930), faculties are opened - medical, maternal and infantile, sanitary-hygienic, chemical-pharmaceutical. In Belarus, the Belarusian Institute for Advanced Studies of Physicians (1932), scientific institutes for the protection of motherhood and childhood (1931), skin and venereology, blood transfusion and hematology (1932), and in Homel, the trachomatous-ophthalmologic institute (1934). The first congresses and conferences were held - ophthalmologists (1931), on blood transfusion (1934), neuropathologists and psychiatrists (1938). The Russian and Ukrainian scientific weeks and decadents (1934), the First All-Union Conference on Sclera (1936), the session of the All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine (1940), the All-Belarusian Medical Society (1940) are being created in the republic. All this contributes to the growth of the number of scientific publications in the magazine.

A great place in the "Medical Journal of the BSSR" was occupied by articles on the organization of public health, sanitation and hygiene, theoretical and clinical medicine. Measures are planned to improve the sanitary condition and the construction of a new collective farm village (Z. K.  Mogilevchik, M. D. Galperin, and others). Questions of diagnostics and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary suppuration, blood diseases (F.O. Gaussman, S. M. Melkikh, etc.) are being developed. The problems of surgery are dealt with the works of S. M. Rubashov, M. P. Sokolovsky, A. E. Mannheim, M. N. Shapiro, who considered the treatment of acute appendicitis, goiter, intestinal obstruction. Pediatricians worked out the issues of treatment of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, rheumatism, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis (V. A. Leonov, M. A. Khazanov, etc.).

Of interest was the rubric "To help the local doctor," which published articles by Professor E. V. Korchitsa describing the operations for common diseases (appendicitis, hemorrhoids, stomach and duodenal ulcer, hernia, goiter, etc.). Professor D. A. Markov published articles on the treatment of neurological diseases. It also printed the State Inspectorate's instructions on the use of measles and whole blood serum, vaccinations against dysentery, instructions from the People's Commissar for the BSSR and the USSR.

To attract doctors to the scientific work, an advisory bureau was organized from the faculty of the Minsk Medical Institute and a number of scientific topics were proposed for implementation in the conditions of the rural medical station. The Office promised to help in providing medical literature and publishing completed work in the "Medical Journal of the BSSR."

During these years, many tasks on sanitary supervision and prevention of infectious diseases in the republic were solved, which was reflected in the journal. A significant number of articles are devoted to experimental and clinical medicine. Questions of blood transfusion (Yu. M. Irger), treatment of pain syndrome (D. A. Markov, M. A. Khazanov), pathological course of pregnancy (V. A. Senkovskaya, S. G. Nikitenko), tuberculosis (S. P. Slesarev), diagnosis and treatment of perforated ulcer of the stomach (I. M. Stelmashonok), etc. The reports of scientific congresses, conferences and meetings of scientific medical societies were regularly published.

The permanent authors of the magazine were academicians I. T. Titov, A. Ya. Prokopchuk, V. A. Leonov; Professors S. I. Lebedkin, S. M. Melkikh, B. Ya. Elbert, M. L. Vydrin, S. M. Rubashov, D. A. Markov, and others. They proposed new methods for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of neurological, Skin-venereal, gynecological, surgical, children's, infectious diseases. A worthy place in the magazine was received for the first time in the world developed by I. A. Birillo, F. A. Andreev and Z. S. Berman in the method of intra-arterial blood transfusion. It is difficult to find an area of medicine that would not be reflected in the pages of the journal. However, gradually from publications the polemical enthusiasm inherent in the "Belarusian Medical Thought" disappears, the publication takes a good, academic look.

Left in the "Medical Journal of the BSSR" trace and turbulent political events in the USSR 2 nd half of the 30-ies. A sharp tone characteristic of the press of that time in the editorial article "Block of fascist spies, pests and murderers", devoted to trials of "enemies of the people" (1938, No. 1-2), draws attention.

In total, 418 articles were published in the "Medical Journal of the BSSR": health care organization, sanitation and hygiene - 68, surgery - 48, therapy - 40, pediatrics - 33, more than 70 abstracts, mainly from German journals. With the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War, the publication of the journal ceased.

A new stage in the history of "Healthcare" begins in 1954, when the government of the republic decided to resume publication of the printed body of the Ministry of Health. The corresponding editor-in-chief of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Professor Z. K. Mogilevchik (1955-1967) was appointed editor-in-chief; the well-known scientists were appointed as members of the editorial board: A . D. Adensky, D. P. Belyatsky, I. A. Bulygin, D. M. Golub , M. N. Zhukova, V. V. Kosmachevsky, V. A. Leonov, M. F. Merezhinsky, L. S. Persianinov, I. M. Stelmashonok, B. I. Trusevich, K. S. Shadursky (deputy Editor-in-Chief), B. Ya. Elbert and M. M. Lenkevich (secretary).

In January 1955 the first issue of the monthly magazine "Public Health of Belarus" (volume 5 p. L., Circulation 6000 copies) was published. In an address to the readers, it was emphasized: "... the journal" Public Health of Belarus "" - the institution of the Ministry of Health of the BSSR - will cover the organizational forms and methods of activity of health authorities and its scientific and medical institutions, the achievements of medical science, the latest methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, advanced Experience of healthcare institutions and medical workers ".

Articles for the first issue were carefully selected, which covered the issues of improving the quality of medical care (Minister of Health I. A. Insarov), improving the dispensary services of the rural population (D. P. Belyatsky), dysentery (V. V. Kosmachevsky, A. N. Filippovich, A. A. Klyucharev, Yu. A. Elkina), the history of medicine (GR Kryuchok). Attention was paid to the exchange of experience, the chronicle of medical events. Later, the magazine's focus was on highlighting the current problems of the organization of public health, theoretical and clinical medicine, and information on new medicines was periodically posted.

Much attention was paid to the work of the magazine by the Ministry of Health. On July 18, 1955, the collegium of the Ministry of Health of the BSSR adopted a resolution to publish in each issue of the magazine advanced articles on topical issues of the organization of public health and science problems, and the work of the Ministry of Health and its bodies on the ground. The college obliged the heads of departments and departments of the ministry to regularly come forward with articles on scientific and organizational issues, coordinate the activities of the UMS of the Ministry of Health with the editorial board of the magazine. It would be good to follow this decree today.

In the 50-60s of the XX century, the republic tackled the problems of increasing the availability of medical care in the city and in the countryside, improving the sanitary conditions of work and life of the population, and developing specialized medical care. In the 70-80s there were fundamental changes in the health of the country. The number of scientific and medical institutions has increased considerably, material and technical equipment has improved. These changes required improvement of the quality and culture of medical care, availability of qualified medical personnel. The magazine "Healtlcare of Belarus" with its publications contributed to the growth of professionalism and scientific level of medical workers. It is necessary to note the manager's talent and organizational abilities of Professor ZK Mogilevchik, who created a close-knit team of the editorial staff and editorial board, aimed at solving the tasks set.

The magazine promoted the propagation and introduction of native scientific developments in health care, which were recognized not only in our republic, but also in the USSR. These are the methods of revitalizing children born with asphyxia (I. S. Legenchenko, L. S. Persianinov), the use of an antitularemia vaccine (B. Ya. Elbert), treatment of cicatricial narrowing of the esophagus and stomach (I. M. Stelmashonok, etc.) Prosthetics of the heart valves (A. V. Shott), surgical methods for the treatment of congenital anomalies of individual organs and human systems (A. I. Mikhelson, N. E. Savchenko), etc.

The magazine "Healthcare of Belarus" became a popularizer of scientific achievements within the framework of the problems formed in the republic - medical cybernetics (G. I. Sidorenko, N. S. Misyuk), brain ischemia (I. P. Antonov, E. F. Lunets), medical Genetics (Yu. V. Gulkevich, I. N. Usov), hyperthermia in oncology (N. N. Alexandrov), the fight against transmissible infections (V. I. Votyakov), etc. Thanks to this, the developed methods of treating oncological, neurological, urological , Infectious patients, new methods of stabilizing blood have become known far beyond the borders of the republic.

In addition to Belarusian scientists, prominent Russian scientists were represented on the pages of the magazine with problematic articles: academicians V. A. Engelgardt, V. V. Parin, N. N. Blokhin, B. V. Petrovsky, E. M. Tareyev, M. S. Vovsi, N. I. Graschenkov, A. F. Tur, V. I. Struchkov, A. M. Chernukh, N. P. Bochkov, V. V. Kanep, E. I. Chazov, and others.

The magazine systematically published materials on the work of the Ministry of Health, the Head BREEZE and scientific medical societies. In each issue there were articles ordered by a famous scientist. The works of practical doctors were regularly published. This made it possible to generalize the best practices and make it available to physicians throughout the republic. Such forms of work as round-table discussions, reading conferences, visiting sessions of the editorial board were practiced. The magazine turned into a kind of arbitrator, without authoritative opinion and whose support it was impossible to implement any fruitful idea.

Great role in the work of the magazine played editor-in-chief (1967-1979) the Minister of Health (1948-1966), Professor I. A. Insarov. Being a man of unbending will, he always brought the case to the end. Thanks to the purposefulness and perseverance of Ivan Anisimovich, the efforts of the editorial board and the professionalism of the editorial board, the magazine "Healthcare of Belarus" became a mass scientific and practical publication that plays an important role in shaping the scientific worldview and professional training of medical workers in Belarus. In the 1970s, the magazine's circulation reached 20,000 copies - an unprecedented value for periodical medical publications in the USSR. He was discharged not only in the republics of the Soviet Union, but also in Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Australia, England, Belgium, India, Canada, Netherlands, USA, Finland, France, Japan.

Recognition of the successful activity of the "Healthcare of Belarus" is its awarding in 1974, one of the first among the periodicals of the republic, the Certificate of Honor of the Supreme Council of the BSSR, and a special diploma of the Ministry of Health of the USSR.
 

Traditions of the journal as editor-in-chief (1979-1993) were continued by the candidate of medical sciences N. K. Deryugo. The scientific significance of the published materials has increased, much attention has been paid to the rubric "To help a practical doctor". The magazine responded promptly to events in our republic and abroad, was one of the best in the publishing house "Polymya".

The beginning of the 90s of the XX century was a difficult period in the history of our country. Since 1992, the magazine was called "Healthcare of Belarus", and since 1995 - "Healthcare". In connection with the economic crisis, the question arose about the termination of its release. At this time (1993-2005) the magazine was headed by the former Minister of Health (1986-1990), corresponding member of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Professor V. S. Ulaschyk. His authority, tremendous efforts, assistance of the Ministry of Health and interest of the medical community ensured the journal's survival. The financial status, quality, format and content of the publication improved, there appeared the sections meeting the requirements of the time - "New methods of research", "Modern medical equipment", "Medicine abroad", more often began to publish problem and discussion articles, lectures and scientific reviews. The use of computer technology has made it possible to improve the design and printing of the journal. On the cover appeared aphorism "Of all sciences (arts), of course medicine - the most noble." The editorial office was the establishment of the first in the republic journal for specialists with secondary medical education - "Medical knowledge" (1999).

It is worth mentioning the contribution of Professor N. F. Soroka as editor-in-chief (2005-2010) in improving the work of the journal. Under his leadership, the volume of the publication increased, the material and technical base was strengthened, and the working conditions in the editorial office improved. Orientation of "Healthcare" to a general practitioner, coverage of general and borderline issues of medicine required a variety of materials. The editorial staff constantly collaborates with well-known scientists (O. V. Aleinikova, E. V. Barkovsky, A. V. Beletsky, L. M. Belyaeva, I. V. Vasilevsky, A. V. Vorobei, G. I. Gerasimovich, I. N. Grishin, I. A. Karpov, M. K. Kevra, A. I. Kubarko, P. I. Lobko, N. A. Manak, T. V. Mokhort, A. G. Mrochek, M. K. Nedzved, V. G. Pankratov, M. P. Potapnev, V. B. Smychek, N. F. Soroka, A. V. Strotsky, A. V. Sukalo, O. G. Sukonko, V. I. Ternov , L. P. Titov, V. S. Ulaschyk, E. A. Kholodova, E. D. Cherstvyi, G. N. Chistenko, G. A. Shishko, A. V. Shott, and others), tries to attract attention To actual health problems, contributing to their full discussion and decision..

Performing the function of a chronicler of Russian medicine, the magazine always responded to the most important events in the life of the republic and the international community. There was a place for publications on philosophical and methodological problems of medicine, articles on the history of medicine and biographical materials (Yu. K. Abayev, S. I. Belov, V. S. Korovkin, E. M. Tishchenko, V. S. Ulaschyk et al.). Successes in the work of the magazine were noted in 2009 with the Certificate of Honor of the Administration of the President of the Republic of Belarus.

In 2010, Professor Yu. K. Abayev was appointed as editor-in-chief. By that time, the number of periodical medical publications in the republic was close to four dozen. New conditions required the improvement of forms of work - the magazine is viable, if it is directed to the future and is constantly updated. In 2010-2011. New headings were opened: "School of a Young Scientist" (methodology of scientific work), "Our Contemporary" (coryphaeus of Russian medical science), "In Free Time" (wise thoughts, aphorisms), "Lawyer answers". Since 2011, discussions have started around the round table on topical issues of medicine with the participation of well-known scientists (Belarus, Russia, Germany, Hungary) and placing video on the Internet. As a result of the discussions since 2013, under the aegis of the Ministry of Health, republican scientific and practical seminars and conferences are organized.

International cooperation is expanding. Together with the representative office of the World Health Organization in Belarus (head - E. O. Zaitsev), the meetings with experts of the WHO European headquarters (Copenhagen) are held in the editorial office. Great attention is paid to the history of public health in Belarus. The search for archival materials is under way, articles devoted to prominent figures of Russian medicine (N. V. Zmachinskaya, V. S. Ulaschyk, etc.) are published. The exposition, organized with the assistance of the Museum of the History of Medicine of Belarus (director - N. S. Shumin), is functioning in the editorial office, historical calendars are regularly published. With the technical support of the portal for physicians of Belarus doktora.by, a functional version of the journal's website (zdrav.by) and a blog of the editor-in-chief have been developed.

The prestige of "Healthcare" is evidenced by the growth of the magazine's circulation abroad and the regular placement of promotional materials by the largest pharmaceutical companies. At the VIII National Media Contest "Zlolotaya Litera" in 2012, the magazine "Healthcare" became the winner in the nomination "The Best Specialized Publication".

Today, 90 years after the publication of the first issue of the magazine, with a sense of gratitude you look at the numerous volumes of "Healthcare" and its predecessors. Their value has not diminished in our time. Take a magazine published in the 1920s or 1930s. It is amazing the thoroughness of writing articles. Then there was no rapid pace of life, thoughts were "nurtured" slowly and the author, publishing the article, slowly opened the secrets of his work. Now the volume of publications has significantly decreased, but their number has increased dramatically. The reader, absorbing a lot of articles, is enriched with a considerable amount of facts, not having the opportunity to form a medical thinking, which is achieved only by a thoughtful study of the thoroughly written works. Now magazine publications have lost their individual handwriting, turning into clusters of factual data. Science from this, probably, has won, but medicine as a humanities science - has lost. "We have become rich in knowledge, but poor in wisdom" (K. Jung).

Reviewing is an important part of the work of any periodical. In the magazines of past years you meet thorough, sometimes very sharp reviews. Now this type of publications has disappeared from the pages of medical publications, although criticism is no less valuable than the composition itself. To write a qualified review is a difficult and often thankless task. No wonder the great critics V. G. Belinsky, N. A. Dobrolyubov, D. I. Pisarev are on the same level as the largest writers.

There are fewer generalizing articles. At the present time, a peculiar situation is emerging: in the XIX century, scientists sought broad generalizations, in the twentieth century, when the number of new scientific facts rapidly increased, much greater interest was caused by their further accumulation. This trend continues even now. But only large-scale theoretical generalizations can provide a solution to the global problems of medicine. Similar articles appeared regularly on the pages of "Belarusian Medical Thought", "Medical Journal of the BSSR" and "Healthcare of Belarus" (B. M. Krol, D. A. Markov, I. T. Titov, S. M. Rubashov, V. I Votyakov, G. I. Sidorenko), they awakened the thought, evoked the readers' response. In a modern author this type of publications is not of interest. I do not want to think that the scientific medical community is depersonalized and the widely-educated people began to meet less often.

Today - in the age of specialization - the most important task of the general medical journal is to attract the attention of physicians of different specialties to interdisciplinary problems: strengthening the technocratic thinking of the doctor and "dehumanizing" medicine, increasing the number of errors in health care, legal insecurity of doctors, the imperfection of medical law, and many others. Among them, the most important problem is the role of morality in the work of a physician and a scientific worker.

A. P. Chekhov wrote: "It is good, if each of us left after school, a well or something like that life would not pass and did not leave forever without leaving a trace." The magazine "Healthcare", following the dictum of the great writer, continues to develop humane principles laid down in 1924, contributing to the protection of human health and the progress of Russian medicine in the 21st century.