ETHICAL ASPECT OF COMMUNICATIVE INTERACTION BETWEEN PHYSICIAN AND PATIENT
The article is devoted to the actual problem of the medical ethics of the 21st century — to the relationships between the physician and the patient. The study is aimed at analyzing the problems in the relationships between the physician and the patient in the nowadays society in the context of the communicative and ethical discourse. Works of Russian and American scientists as well as the author’s own data of the communication researches, the professional communication culture, the models of the doctor and the patient relations in the society of medicalization make the basis of the study. It has been noted that knowledge of the main principles and specific professional features of communication and communication techniques form the foundation of a successful interaction between the physician and the patient. First of all, it is a desire and ability to communicate as well as tolerance, respect, and the physician’s shaped professional image. Analyzing the physician’s and patient’s expectations of the interaction a mutual desire to communicate competently, to respond emotionally, and to demonstrate empathy were emphasized. At the same time, knowledge of communication technologies should be supplemented by understanding the modern ethical principles. The principle of the individual autonomy violated via pressing on the patient’s decisions and the physician imposing his own value system is one of them. The discrepancy with the principle of the individual autonomy is realized in the paternalistic model of the relationship between the physician and the patient conflicting with the patient’s nowadays mindsets and expectations. In accordance with modern ethical principles for a successful interaction of the physician and the patient, autonomous models of interaction — a contractual model and a collegial model — have been proposed. Summing up the author notes that today a physician needs to know ethical and communicative principles, be focused on “feedback” for a successful interaction with the patient. The patient also needs development of ethical, psychological, scientific knowledge and communication skills in the society of medicalization.